Setting up SSL and authentication for Kibana

By default, the communication between Kibana (including the Wazuh app) and the web browser on end-user systems is not encrypted. It’s strongly recommended that Kibana be configured to use SSL encryption and to enable authentication. In this section, we will describe how this can be done with an NGINX setup.

NGINX is a popular open-source web server and reverse proxy known for its high performance, stability, rich feature set, simple configuration and low resource consumption. In this example, we will use it as a reverse proxy to provide encrypted and authenticated access to Kibana to the end users.

Note

Many of the commands described below need to be executed with root user privileges.

Note

The default port for the Kibana web interface is 5601. This tutorial will make the 80 and 443 ports available for HTTP/HTTPS access.

NGINX SSL proxy for Kibana (RPM-based distributions)

  1. Install NGINX:
  1. For CentOS:
# cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo <<\EOF
[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/$releasever/$basearch/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1
EOF

# yum install nginx
  1. For RHEL:
# cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo <<\EOF
[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/rhel/$releasever/$basearch/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1
EOF

# yum install nginx

Note

For more information, see NGINX: Official Red Hat/CentOS packages.

  1. Install your SSL certificate and private key:
  1. If you have a valid signed certificate, copy your key file <ssl_key> and your certificate file <ssl_pem> to their proper locations:
# mkdir -p /etc/pki/tls/certs /etc/pki/tls/private
# cp <ssl_pem> /etc/pki/tls/certs/kibana-access.pem
# cp <ssl_key> /etc/pki/tls/private/kibana-access.key
  1. If you do not have a valid signed certificate, create a self-signed certificate as follows. Remember to set the Common Name field to your server name. For instance, if your server is example.com, you would do the following:
# mkdir -p /etc/pki/tls/certs /etc/pki/tls/private
# openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/pki/tls/private/kibana-access.key -out /etc/pki/tls/certs/kibana-access.pem
  Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key
  ...........+++
  ................+++
  writing new private key to '/etc/pki/tls/private/kibana-access.key'
  -----
  You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
  into your certificate request.
  What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
  There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
  For some fields there will be a default value,
  If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
  -----
  Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]: US
  State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]: California
  Locality Name (eg, city) []: San Jose
  Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]: Example Inc.
  Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []: section
  Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []: example.com
  Email Address []: example@mail.com
  1. Configure NGINX as an HTTPS reverse proxy to Kibana:
# cat > /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf <<\EOF
server {
    listen 80;
    listen [::]:80;
    return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}

server {
    listen 443 default_server;
    listen            [::]:443;
    ssl on;
    ssl_certificate /etc/pki/tls/certs/kibana-access.pem;
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/pki/tls/private/kibana-access.key;
    access_log            /var/log/nginx/nginx.access.log;
    error_log            /var/log/nginx/nginx.error.log;
    location / {
        auth_basic "Restricted";
        auth_basic_user_file /etc/nginx/conf.d/kibana.htpasswd;
        proxy_pass http://kibana-server-ip:5601/;
    }
}
EOF

Note

We configure Nginx in order to encapsulate the IP address of the Kibana server. This configuration allows Kibana requests to be redirected to HTTPS. When using this configuration, it is recommended that the file /etc/kibana/kibana.yml be edited to set the field server.host to localhost. The Kibana service must be restarted to apply this change.

  1. Allow NGINX to connect to the Kibana port if SELinux is being used:
# semanage port -a -t http_port_t -p tcp 5601

Note

This assumes that you have policycoreutils-python installed to manage SELinux.

Enable authentication by htpasswd

  1. Install the package httpd-tools:
# yum install httpd-tools
  1. Generate the .htpasswd file. Make sure to replace wazuh with your chosen username, matching with the auth_basic_user_file:
# htpasswd -c /etc/nginx/conf.d/kibana.htpasswd wazuh
  1. Restart NGINX:
  1. For Systemd:
# systemctl restart nginx
  1. For SysV Init:
# service nginx restart

Now, access the Kibana web interface via HTTPS. It will prompt you for the username and password that you created in the steps above.

Warning

If you’re facing permission issues or getting 502 code error, try executing this command: setsebool -P httpd_can_network_connect 1

NGINX SSL proxy for Kibana (Debian-based distributions)

  1. Install NGINX:
# apt-get install nginx
  1. Install your SSL certificate and private key:
  1. If you have a valid signed certificate, copy your key file <ssl_key> and your certificate file <ssl_pem> to their proper locations:
# mkdir -p /etc/ssl/certs /etc/ssl/private
# cp <ssl_pem> /etc/ssl/certs/kibana-access.pem
# cp <ssl_key> /etc/ssl/private/kibana-access.key
  1. If you do not have a valid signed certificate, create a self-signed certificate as follows:
# mkdir -p /etc/ssl/certs /etc/ssl/private
# openssl req -x509 -batch -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/ssl/private/kibana-access.key -out /etc/ssl/certs/kibana-access.pem
  Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key
  .............+++
  ..+++
  writing new private key to '/etc/ssl/private/kibana-access.key'
  -----
  1. Configure NGINX as an HTTPS reverse proxy to Kibana:
# cat > /etc/nginx/sites-available/default <<\EOF
server {
    listen 80;
    listen [::]:80;
    return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}

server {
    listen 443 default_server;
    listen            [::]:443;
    ssl on;
    ssl_certificate /etc/ssl/certs/kibana-access.pem;
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/ssl/private/kibana-access.key;
    access_log            /var/log/nginx/nginx.access.log;
    error_log            /var/log/nginx/nginx.error.log;
    location / {
        auth_basic "Restricted";
        auth_basic_user_file /etc/nginx/conf.d/kibana.htpasswd;
        proxy_pass http://kibana-server-ip:5601/;
    }
}
EOF

Note

We configure Nginx in order to encapsulate the IP address of the Kibana server. This configuration allows Kibana requests to be redirected to HTTPS. When using this configuration, it is recommended that the file /etc/kibana/kibana.yml be edited to set the field server.host to localhost. The Kibana service must be restarted to apply this change.

Enable authentication by htpasswd

  1. Install the package apache2-utils:
# apt-get install apache2-utils
  1. Generate the .htpasswd file replacing <user> below with your chosen username:
# htpasswd -c /etc/nginx/conf.d/kibana.htpasswd <user>
  1. Restart NGINX:
  1. For Systemd:
# systemctl restart nginx
  1. For SysV Init:
# service nginx restart

Now, access the Kibana web interface via HTTPS. It will prompt you for the username and password that you created in the steps above.